We wish to draw your attention to the fact that the veracity of the diagnosis, based on the results of laboratory tests, largely depends on compliance with the rules for analyses sampling, as well as the rules for preparing the patient for the examination.

If it is necessary to monitor the state of your health over time, it is recommended to carry out the required examination in one laboratory. This is due to the fact that the different laboratories may use different methods and testing systems for the study of the same indicators and those methods and systems may vary from each other on level of specificity and sensitivity.


For testing the laboratory parameters, blood samples for study are taken from ulnar veins in vacuum tubes using a sterile butterfly needle with a luer adapter.


Blood for laboratory testing shall be taken before drug administration or not earlier than 2 weeks after their cancellation. (Exceptions are cases when it is necessary to study the dependence of treatment efficiency based on the dosis of drugs). If you take drugs, be sure to warn your doctor about it.

24 hours before blood work, it is necessary to exclude fatty and fried food, as well as alcohol.

Before doing blood work it is necessary to exclude physical exertion and emotional disturbance (it is recommended to take a rest for 10 - 15 minutes immediately before blood work).

It is required not to smoke 1-2 hours before proceeding with blood work.

If laboratory tests are required after radiography, ultrasound scan, rectal examination or physiotherapy procedures, it is necessary to consult the physician about the time for blood sampling.

It is recommended to do the blood work in the morning, on an empty stomach, after an 8–10 hour fast. From liquids you can drink only water (tea, coffee, juice and other liquids affect the result of the study).

In exceptional cases, blood for laboratory tests can be taken at any time, but not earlier than 6 hours after the last meal. This exception applies to all biochemical parameters, except cortisol, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, growth hormone, aldosterone, renin, TSH, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins.


Blood for general analysis should be taken not earlier than 4 hours after the last meal.

The study results of hormonal state of women of reproductive age, including pregnant women, depend on the phase of the menstrual cycle. Therefore, in the appointment card of hormone study (FSH, LH, prolactin, E3 (estriol free), estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, 17  pregnenoldione) it is necessary to indicate the phase of the cycle, and for pregnant women - the duration of pregnancy (strictly adhere to the recommendations of your doctor about the day of the menstrual cycle, which is necessary for blood sampling). 

In case of serodiagnosis of infectious diseases, depending on the period of infection and the state of the immune system, antibodies to infection may not be detected. However, it is necessary to remember that in the presence of clinical symptoms, the negative antibody test result does not exclude the presence of infection. In similar cases, it is recommended to conduct a second study in 2 to 3 weeks.



In order to define the levels of HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein, apolipoproteins, it is recommended to do the blood work on an empty stomach (at least 12 hours after the last meal).

In order to define glucose, insulin, C-peptide, it is recommended to do the blood work in the morning, on an empty stomach,  8–10 hours after the last meal, if these studies are not prescribed by the attending physician under normal dietary regime or  load.

Blood levels of ACTH, growth hormone, cortisol, parathyroid hormone, aldosterone, renin and TSH are subject to daily fluctuations, therefore, to test these hormones, blood shall be taken only in the morning from 09:00 to 11:00.

In order to define the concentration of uric acid, it is necessary to leave eating foods rich in purines 1-2 days before the study (liver, kidneys) and restrict maximum the meat, fish, coffee, and tea  in the diet.

During hormone replacement therapy of the thyroid gland 2 weeks before the study of total and free T3 and T4, it is necessary to exclude the use of hormonal drugs. Iodine drugs, as well as labeled isotopes of iodine and technetium shall be excluded 2-3 days before the study.

Testing of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) shall be carried out before the examination by urologist or 2 weeks after the examination. Before testing, sexual abstinence is recommended for 3–5 days.

In order to define the hormones of the reproductive system (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, 17- pregnenoldione, DHEA-C, testosterone) blood shall be taken during the days of the cycle prescribed by the attending physician.



A day before giving urine sample for study, it is recommended not to take diuretics, as well as not to eat vegetables, fruits (beets, carrots, blueberries, etc.) and medications (amidopirin, acetylsalicylic acid, etc.) that can change the color of urine.

Before urine collection, a thorough hygienic care of the genitals is performed. Women are not recommended to give urine sample during menstruation.

For general clinical analysis, a portion of morning urine (first urination after night sleep) is collected in a clean, dry container.

For bacteriological examination, urine shall be collected immediately after the hygienic care of the genitals in a sterile container, which is opened immediately before urination and closed immediately after the end of urine collection. The container with the urine sample shall be delivered to the laboratory within 30-60 minutes. It is preferable to transfer the container at temperature close to the body temperature (36-37 oC).



To obtain reliable results it is necessary to maintain sexual abstinence for 3-5 days before the study. If during this period emission  (night ejaculation) takes place, then the study time should be postponed (3-5 days).

Sperm is collected by the patient in a special room with the help of masturbation in a special container which will be provided to you in the laboratory. A portion of the sperm must be collected completely, without loss (otherwise, the results of the analysis may be distorted).

In separate cases, sperm can be collected at home. To do this, you need to get a special container in the laboratory (use of a condom is unacceptable to collect the sperm). The sperm collected shall be delivered to the laboratory within 30-60 minutes at temperature close to the body temperature (36-37 oC).


If you are simultaneously assigned tests for the detection of genital infections and sperm analysis, then first of all you need to pass an analysis for infection.


If you are simultaneously assigned tests for the detection of genital infections and sperm analysis, then first of all you need to pass an analysis for infection.




Before fecal collection, first of all it is necessary to urinate in the toilet bowl. Further, by natural defecation, it is collected in  bed-pan or in toilet bowl. Then feces is taken with a spoon in a clean disposable container in an amount of not more than 1/3 of the volume of the container.


Feces samples obtained after an enema, as well as after taking barium (during X-ray examination) are not valid for testing.



As a biomaterial to identify  infectious agents of STDs, smears from the urethra, vagina and cervix are used. Smears are taken using special flexible sterile probes and are processed accordingly depending on the method of examination (bacterioscopy, microbiology, PCR, etc.).

Before taking the biomaterials for analysis

  • Men need to refrain from urinating for 4 hours.
  • Women are recommended not to perform hygienic care of the external genitalia for 12 hours.
  • 3 days before the delivery of the biomaterial, it is necessary to exclude the use of intravaginal agents (ointments, suppositories, balls, etc.) and vaginal douching.
  • Both men and women should exclude sexual intercourse for two days.
  • In case of taking antibiotics, the biomaterial for analysis should be taken 3-4 weeks after the last dosis of drugs.


CELL SMEAR FROM VAGINA (Papanicolaou test)

This is a laboratory microscopic study aimed at identifying abnormalities in the development of uterine cervix cells.

The analysis is prescribed to all women starting from 18 years once a year, as well as for

  • pregnancy planning,
  •  menstrual disorders,
  • human papilloma virus
  • genital herpes
  • taking horminal contraceptives and in other cases.


For analysis, it is necessary to follow the below stated points 2-3 days before

  • to abstrain from sexual intercourse,
  • not to use vaginal agents creams, suppositories, lubricants),
  • before smear sampling, not to uriante for 3 hours.
  • Smear sampling is not recommended if there is itching and vaginal discharge.
  • Smear sampling is recommended the 4th-5th day after menstrual cycle.
  • Smear is taken during a gynecological examination with a special disposable brush from the external and internal surface of the uterine cervix. Since scraping is done during cell collection, some patients may have slight spotting from the vagina for 1-2 days.
  • Smear is considered normal or negative, when all the cells are of normal size and shape and atypical cells are missing.
  • If pathologic cells are detected in the smear, it is recommended to repeat the cytological analysis of the smear  in a certain period of time.